Proximity through the Performance of Supererogatory Rituals and Obligatory Rituals, and Appling Them to Mystical Stations
Hussein Mozaffari / Assistant professor of IKI Mozaffari48@yahoo.com
Received: 2016/09/21 - Accepted: 2016/10/20
"Proximity through the performance of supererogatory rituals" and "proximity through the performance of obligatory rituals" are two mystical terms taken from religious texts and commonly used in mystical works. The present paper elaborates on the main views about the way of applying these two terms to the mystical stations in order to enquire further into some religious texts on the one hand, and to show the close relationship between Islamic mystical terms and religious texts on the other and also refers to the verses and traditions from which these terms are derived. Using an "analytical - descriptive" method, this article finally proposes that "proximity through performing supererogatory rituals" refers to attributive annihilation and "proximity through performing obligatory rituals" refers to annihilation in the Essence. Also, two stations which have a higher position than these two are recognized, and these are: the station of "the proximity through performing supererogatory rituals together with the proximity through performing obligatory rituals and " optional and dedicated station" in which the gnostic can choose between the station of proximity through performing supererogatory ritual, proximity through performing obligatory or performing supererogatory rituals together with obligatory rituals.
Key words: proximity through performance of supererogatory rituals, proximity through performance of obligatory rituals, attributive annihilation, annihilation in the Essence, optional and dedicated proximity.
Asceticism in the Quran and Traditions
Mahmoud Naseri / MA in teaching Islamic sciences, Theology College, Tehran University
Ali Ahmadpour / P.hD student of Islamic sciences, Tehran University Ahmadpoor61@yahoo.com
Received: 2016/05/10 - Accepted: 2016/09/27
No doubt, the most important factor for achieving felicity, to which the holy religion of Islam has given special attention, is self-refinement and cultivation of the soul. According to Islam, such refinement is fulfilled through combat with the self which is the same as asceticism. Some kinds of asceticism are approved by Islam and others are rejected. Given the influx of false eastern and western mystical schools to today's society and the deviation from pure Islam, the present paper seeks, besides the expounding the view of Islam about asceticism and its position in religious teachings, to elaborate on the correct procedure of any measure in this regard and explain obstacles to asceticism in the view of the infallible Imams who hold that asceticism is guaranteed only within the limits of sacred law and the context of divine injunctions. Such asceticism can lead the wayfarer to high mystical degrees.
Key words: asceticism, the Quran, traditions, combat with the self, patience
Spiritual and Erotic Love from
the Viewpoint of Mysticism and Religion
Ghasem Deldar/ MA student of Islamic mysticism, IKI firstname.lastname@example.org
Mohammad Mahdi Gorjian / Associate professor, Bagher al-Olum University
Received: 2015/09/19 - Accepted: 2016/01/30 mm.Gorjian@yahoo.com
Muslim gnostics maintain that the reality of love is indefinable, it is obtainable not something which is known. Literally, it means excessive love and has its roots in the various dimensions of human existence. Its highest level is genuine love, which is represented in the love of God and His Names and Attributes. Love of anything other than God in its different kinds is a metaphorical love. Spiritual and erotic loves are the main kind of love. Spiritual love is a love which is characteristic of man and has its roots in the mutual understanding between the lover and the beloved and the urgent need of man’s esthetic nature. If this kind of love has no suspicion of animality and is pure, it can be a bridge which leads the truth. There are indications in Islamic narrations which confirm this pure and chaste love. Erotic and brutish love is not a true love; rather, it is a surge of passion which has its roots in the carnal dimensions of man. It is perishable and a serious menace to the values of man’s existence, and hinders him/her from seeking perfection. Naturally, incase such love though it is out of one’s choice or one cannot help being with entangled in it is approved religion and observes reservation and chastity it will lead to man’s salvation.
Key words: metaphorical love, genuine love, beauty, erotic love, spiritual love.
Imam Hussein’s Uprising;
a Manifestation of Wisdom or Love?
Vahid Pashaee / PhD student of Shialogy, the university of religions and denominations
Received: 2016/04/14 - Accepted: 2016/09/26 email@example.com
"Love" which is a kind of tendency and attraction and means “strong friendship” is divided into kinds: genuine and false. As for, "intellect", it is deposited in the soul by God to enlighten and estimate and it is not a kind of tendency, and its outcomes sometimes comes under the heading of "is and is not" (theoretical intellect) and sometimes under the heading of "ought and ought not" (practical intellect). Practical intellect has different levels including expedient intellect (calculator), which acts as the manager of life and intellect of faith which is in turn divided into conventional and superior (divine) intellect. According to the triple minds, three types of personality are developed in man, which are as follows: animal, biological, rational and divine. Given the definitions of "intellect" and "love", and development of the types of personality, the encounter between intellect and love culminates in different state, and in the best states. if love is genuine and intellect is divine, there will be no contradiction in this relationship and the lover will, in fact, be a rational person, and his/her love will be a most rational acts. The same is true of Imam Hussein’s uprising which is a movement based on superior intellect and genuine love led by an impeccable divine character.
Key words: intellect, love, Imam Hussein’s uprising, superior intellect, genuine love, calculating intellect, conventional intellect.
The Qur’an and Hadith;
the Inspiring Mystical Views of Najm al-Din Razi in Mirsad al-Ibad
Mohammad Mahdi Ismailpur / P.hD in Islamic mysticism, Tehran Islamic Azad University, Sciences and Research Branch firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 2015/09/19 - Accepted: 2016/01/30
Rationalists have long accused Muslim gnostic in a hidden struggle of depending on their personal experiences and spiritual states in education and promoting Islamic injunctions. With the emergence of the school of Divine Love in the middle of the second century A.H(lunar), this issue turned into a new challenge between philosophers and gnostic. But, as a result of the development of the thoughts of great mystics such as, Ruzbehan, Suhrawardi, Einolghozat, Ghazali, Najm al-Din Razi, Sa’di, Molana and Hafez, Islamic mysticism found a new opportunity, using the ability of Persian language and introducing the origin of its thoughts, that is, the Qur’an and Hadith, mysticism could create great mystical masterpieces and prove the strength of its world view. Najm al-Din Razi, one of the famous gnostics of the sixth century, not only expressed his mystic thoughts according to the method and in the context of the Qur’an and divine sunnah but also gave inspiration to such great people like Hafez. According to Razi’s views, the Qur’an has two aspects: exoteric and esoteric. Its exoteric aspect belongs to those versed in religious law and its esoretic aspect belongs to the friends (of God) and gnostics. He mixed the prose of Mirsad al-Ibad with mystical notes and Qur’anic maxims to show that the heavenly words of gnostics are not mere description and explanation of personal experiences and states. This paper seeks to review the effect of the Qur’an and Hadith on Mirsad al-Ibad by Najm al-Din Razi.
Key words: the Qur’an and Hadith, Islamic mysticism, Najm al-Din Razi , Mirsad al-Ibad, mystical prose.
Inconsistency in Paulo Coelho’s Creed
Zahra Mohsenizadeh/ MA student of theology, Hadith Sciences University, Tehran
Solmaz Karandish/ Associate professor of theology, Shiraz University email@example.com
Received: 2014/12/03 - Accepted: 2015/04/04
With the striking development of civilization and industry, the role of religion and spirituality in society gradually became inconspicuous. This change caused a grave problem for the philanthropists of spirituality and worship, and fictitious spiritualties were offered by newfangled prophets who claimed a real perception of spirituality in order to quench this thirst from which the life of modern western man suffers in the different ways.
One of these newfangled spiritualties is the spiritual movement of Paulo Coelho, a personality with a background influenced by his own past and the views of others. He could spread his thoughts among those thirsty for spirituality through writing novels. What this paper aims at is presenting samples of his writings in order to detect his errors, so that one can, apart from proving the irrationality of his thoughts and opinions, find the errors and weak points in his works by tracing the contradiction and inconsistency of his opinions. The criticism which this paper levels at is centered on investigating the various contradictions in his works. In other words, the present critique is an inner-text criticism which shows that the writer of these works does not adhere to his own opinions and statements. Since he claims to have offered a new creed and used novels to achieve this purpose, this point is briefly investigated. Finally, because of the fundamental nature of the effect of the attitude towards God in any thought, the image he presents of God in his creed is examined and stated.
Key words: God, false ways of mysticism, Paulo Coelho, spirituality, creed, inconsistency.