قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 

The Degrees of Existence in the Great Universe from the Perspective of Mysticism, Reason, and the Quran

Hossein Mozaffari / Assistant Professor, Department of Mysticism, IKI                   h.mozaffari48@gmail.com

Received: 2017/07/17 - Accepted: 2017/09/12                                                                                        



The various degrees of existence in the macrocosmos and the parallelism of these degrees with one another is an issues repeatedly emphasized by mystics and the basis of ontological and textual interpretation for them. Of course, in explaining these degrees, mystics have sometimes divided them generally into two material and divine worlds, and some other times, they have had three, five, or seven divisions for these degrees. They have also described each degree or world beneath as an example of the world above, and emphasized on the correspondence or parallelism of these worlds or degrees. This has enabled them to interpret and understand the inner meaning of the universe based on its outward aspect. While explaining the theory of degrees of existence in macrocosmos and their parallelism from the perspective of mystics, this paper presents evidence for this claim. It also examines this subject from the point of view of reason and the Qur'an, and concludes that it is confirmed by reason and the Qur'an. The principle of the multiplicity of the degrees of universe, regardless of their number, is certain and definite from the point of view of reason and tradition.

Key words: degrees of existence, macrocosmos, esoteric Interpretation, mysticism, Quran.

Mystical Stations in the Thoughts of Ibn Sina and Suhrawardi

Haniyeh Kuhi Hajiabadi / PhD Student of Islamic Philosophy and Theology, Shiraz University         Hanieh.koohi@yahoo.com

Abdul Ali Shokr / Associate Professor at Shiraz University, Ashokr@rose.shirazu.ac.ir

Received: 2017/11/30 - Accepted: 2017/10/14



"Mystical stations and states" are among the basic stages of mystical journey towards the Truth, and make it possible to unite with the Truth. According to their mystical experiences, Ibn Sina and Suhrawardi have mentioned some degrees and orders different from the others. In the ninth stage of "al-Esharat", Ibn Sina refers to nine stages, such as "khalseh, tavaqqol, estifaz, enghelab, taqalqol, mashiyat, ta’rij, taradod and vosul” which are carried out through the will power and austerity of the mystic. He goes on to sum up mystical stations in four stages: "tafrigh, nafz, tark, and rafz." In his works, Suhrawardi states some incoherent stages, but in the book Al-Kalamat al-Zawqiyah, he succinctly points out six stages of "zogh, shogh, esgh, vasl, fana and bagha”. Using the "conceptual analysis" method, this paper examines and compares the spiritual stations expressed by these two mystic philosophers. Since the views of both thinkers were influenced by the religious teachings and the rules of Islamic mysticism, some common points such as "khalseh, sakineh, tavaqol and vasl" are observed in their works. However, in most of the stages, there are differences at least in with respect to terms and idioms. Suhrawardi seems to have taken steps to complete Ibn Sina’s work by adding the two stages of "fana" and "baqa" after the stage of vasl" which is the final stage in Ibn Sina’s classification.

Key words: spiritual stations, state, mysticism, wayfarer, Ibn Sina, Suhrawardi.

Identity Despite Alterity of the Truth
and Creation from the Point of View of Theoretical Mysticism

Mohammad Ali Malamiri / MA Student of Islamic Philosophy, Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research                                                                                                                             ali.kojuri@gmail.com

Hossein Mozaffari / Assistant Professor at Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research     

Received: 2016/10/29 - Accepted: 2016/03/11                                        Mozaffari48@Yahoo.com



The relationship between the Truth and creation is among the important issues in theoretical mysticism. From mystics’ point of view, this relationship is in the form of identity despite alterity; that is, God is identical to creation in one aspect and contradicts it in another aspect. From their point of view, the only essential example of being is the exalted God. This Being, due to its infinity, fills all places and there is no place emptied of Him, and this causes the identity of God with all the individuations. On the other hand, due to being absolute, such Being exceeds all individuations and, consequently, is different from them. This relationship, which is a result of the particular unity of being, has raised some questions and ambiguities. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding and a clearer conception of this relationship by explaining the claims of the mystics and examining the teachings that have led to this attitude.

Key words: identity, alterity, relationship between the Truth and creation, particular unity of being, manifestation, identity despite alterity.

Veils and Unveilings in Kash al-Mahjub


Hadi Edalatpour / PhD Student of Persian Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

Received: 2017/04/27 - Accepted: 2017/01/21                                     hadiedalatpoor@yahoo.com



The terms "hijab" and "kashf-e-hijab" (veil and unveiling) are among the mystical terms used by mystics. Scholars like Mostameli Bukhari in Sharh al-Ta’arrof , Meibodi, in Kashf al-Asrar and Ghazzali in Ehya al-ulum have discussed mystical veil. Hajviri also has mentioned mystical “hijab” and "kashf-e-hijab" in his work Kashf al-Mahjoob. After offering a lexical definition and explaining the mystical concept of "hijab" and "kashf-e-hijab", this paper discusses some examples of veil such as "the greatest veil”, "light veils" and "veils of darkness", which are discussed in mysticism, and types of veils and unveilings from Hajviri's point of view. After dividing veils into two general reini and gheini types (thin veils and veils of disbelief), Hajviri explicitly or implicitly outlines Gheini veils and ways of removing these veils throughout his book.  Gheini veils can be categorized under these general titles: the veil of sighting, states, mystical stations and causes and attributing these affairs to oneself, the veil of individual's station and the conditions of action, and the veil of non-compliance with the conditions of the inner state of action.

Key words: Kashf al- Madjub, Hajviri, veil, unveiling.

Explaining the Theory
of the Summation of Mystical Similitude and Purification

Mohammad Hossein Ja’fari / Ph.D. Student of Comparative Religion and Mysticism, IKI hosinjafari77@yahoo.com

Mohammad Fana’i Eshkevari / Professor at IKI eshkevari@qabas.net;  fanaei.ir@gmail.com

Received: 2016/03/12 - Accepted: 2017/09/11



"Similitude" means regarding God as similar to humankind, and "purification" means regarding God exempted from the defects in creatures. Many consider the relationship between the two as incompatible, whereas in religious texts, purification is associated with similitude, and there is similitude in the midst of every purification. At first, the summation of similitude and purification seems contradictory. How is God, who is exempted from the defects of creatures, closer to them than the vein in their neck? Theoretical mysticism has explained this issue by presenting an ontological system. With a supposition non-conditioned at the state of division, the essence of the Truth is exempted not only from similitude but also from purification. The station of essence can be regarded beyond similitude and purification because no creation can get to that station. On the basis of the particular unity of being, the truth is a real essential being that pervades everywhere. After the station of Essence, everything other than God is the manifestation and state of God, with an existence by- accident, and of course, an actual fact. The infinite existence of the Truth is present in and beyond the heart of every particle. This infinite existence has a comprehensive distinction, and encompasses all its manifestations existentially. Therefore, in the station of multiplicity, the Truth exists infinitely in the heart of every particle and fills it, but at the same time, it goes beyond it. Therefore, all manifestations of God are and are not the truth at the same time; in the sense that creation is the truth; but the Truth is not just creation, but also beyond creation.

Key words: similitude, purification, station of essence, supposition non-conditioned at the state of division, Islamic manifestation and mysticism.

A Comparative Study of the Hierarchies of Existence from the Perspective of Islamic Mysticism and Upanishad Texts


Ali Khaleghpour / PhD Student at IKI                                               a.khaleghpour@gmail.com
Alireza Kermani / Associate Professor of Mysticism, IKI                Kermania59@yahoo.com

Received: 2016/12/03 - Accepted: 2017/05/10



Despite their structural differences, Islamic mysticism and Upanishad teachings are very similar in nature. One of these similarities is their explanation of the hierarchies of existence. The Upanishad assumes three degrees of "awakening", "dream" and "deep Sleep" which can correspond to the levels of the material world, world of image exemplars, world of intelligence and world of unicity in Islamic mysticism. In Hindu doctrines, these three levels are Brahman's constraints, but from the point of view of Islamic mysticism, they are the levels of the emergence of "breath of the Merciful". However, there are two main differences in this regard: the “Breath of the merciful, " extends beyond this level. Secondly, in Islamic mysticism, beyond the "Breath of the Merciful" is "the station of essence", which has a suppositional station and is not mentioned in the Hindu texts. On the other hand, in Hindu sources, Atman, the truth of man, has a considerable similarity with the truth of the "most universal being" in Islamic mysticism. Using the approach of documentive analysis, this paper examines and compares Islamic sources and Upanishad texts concerning the hierarchies of existence in the above two ideologies.


Key words: Islamic mysticism, Upanishad texts, Atman, Brahman, breath of the Merciful, the most universal being.