Abstracts

Table of Contents

A Study of the Principles and Foundations of Mystical Esoteric Commentary from the View of Traditions / Seyyed Yadullah Yazdanpanah (p: 7)
The Idea of the Movement of the Ardent Desire: Doubts, Challenges and Their Responses / 'Abdullatif 'Alemi    (p: 25)
Mystics and the Reasons for Difference in the Number and Order of Stations of Mystical Journey / Ahmad Hussein Sharifi    (p: 37)
The Theory of "Transcendent Unity of Religions" and the Evaluation of Attributing it to Islamic Mysticism / Ali Reza Kermani  & Mohammad Mahmudi    (p: 49)
The Master of Mysticism and Spirituality; Necessity and Functions / Hassan Busaliki   (p: 69)
A Review of Causes and Factors of Social Advent of Early Sufi Orders / Rasool Mazra'ii     (p: 91)

 

 

A Review of Causes and Factors of Social Advent of Early Sufi Orders

Rasool Mazra'ii / Faculty member of IKI    Nashrieh@qabas.net
Received: 2013-11-16- Accepted: 2014-2-26
Abstract
The formation and advent of Sufi orders and chains within the realm of Islamic Sufism poses the question how the spirit of Islamic Sufism, which is personal asceticism and inner mystical journey, is compatible with the reality of Sufi orders and chains which are social phenomena. This apparent incompatibility has made some researchers to attribute the social formation and advent of Sufi orders to such factors as Sufis' relationships with spiritualist groups of other religions, schools and sects, which are external and strange to the capacities of Islamic mysticism and Sufism. However, the review of historical evidence indicate that the most important reason for the formation and advent of Sufi orders and chains is the features which lie in the educational dimension of Sufism, especially its most important teaching, i.e. devotional relationship between devotee and the desired. In fact, the requirements and features lied in the nature of this dimension, in its evolutionary path, turned the Sufism, which was a personal affair centered on asceticism, into a social and collective phenomenon which had many manners and disciplines. Over the time, these early groups and sects, under the influence of some other important factors such as popular inclination towards Sufism and devising the manners and disciplines of Sufi monastery, turn into the present Sufi orders and chains.
Key words: Sufi orders, Sufism, factors of advent, educational dimension, devotional relationship, devotee and the desired, the aspects of Sufism which are approved as good.

The Master of Mysticism and Spirituality; Necessity and Functions

Hassan Busaliki / Faculty member of institute of ethics and education    Bosaliki@yahoo.com
Received: 2013-10-30- Accepted: 2014-2-15
Abstract
 The issue of master of morality is one of the most challenging fields in spiritual education. The seekers of spirituality pose many questions in this regard. Using a library method, the present paper seeks to answer two questions as follows: is it necessary to consult a master in spiritual development?  What are the functions of master and guide of spiritual development and what should be expected from him?
Regarding the first question, the opposing and agreeing arguments were reviewed which resulted in the fact that it is necessary to consult with a master. With regard to the second question, three main pivots were recognized: adding to knowledge, arousing desire and practical assistance. Of course, more specific duties and functions were recognized and defined under each of these three main pivots.
Key words: spiritual development, mystical journey, master of morality, Sufi master, wayfarer.

The Theory of "Transcendent Unity of Religions" and the Evaluation of Attributing it to Islamic Mysticism

Ali Reza Kermani / Assistant professor of IKI    Kermania59@yahoo.com
Mohammad Mahmudi / MA of Islamic mysticism, IKI    araki.aref@yahoo.com
Received: 2013-10-17- Accepted: 2014-3-1
Abstract
The theory of "transcendent unity of religions" holds that religions have two external and internal dimensions and are one in internal dimension in spite of multiple external dimensions. Difference in external dimension of religions is necessary, but there is no difference in internal dimension. The existing religions of the world all have legitimacy and each religion is a way towards truth and is not abrogated as long as it is practiced. Those who believe in this theory, i.e. traditionalists, claim that mystics have the same belief and provide some evidence extracted from mystics' words to prove their claims. Using a critical approach to traditionalists' view, the present paper seeks to evaluate the attribution of the idea of "transcendent unity of religions" to mystics, elaborate on their view and provide a correct analysis of misunderstanding through a comprehensive look at the principles and thinking system of both groups.
Key words: unity, religions, tradition, mysticism, legitimacy, abrogation.

Mystics and the Reasons for Difference in the Number and Order of Stations of Mystical Journey

Ahmad Hussein Sharifi / Associate professor of IKI     sharifi@sharifi49.ir
Received: 2013-10-7- Accepted: 2013-3-5
Abstract
One of the most important missions of mysticism is to explain the stations and stages of mystical journey. So far, mystics have not been able to determine explicitly the number of stages and stations of the path of achieving the ideal aim. There are great differences among them in this regard. The present paper claims that these differences can never be regarded as the sign of the fact that this issue is based on personal preference or inclination; rather, based on different reasons, it can be said that the nature of practical mysticism requires as such. Many reasons can be offered to justify these differences. Difference in invocation in undifferentiated mode or in differentiated mode, difference in authenticity or digressiveness of discussing about stations, difference in beginning and end of mystical journey, taking into consideration the status of one who asks, difference in the criteria and basis of ordering, variety and multiplicity of mystics' experiences of mystical journey,  giving or not giving authenticity to particular numbers such as seven, forty, one hundred and thousand, and confusion between stations and conditions can be regarded as the most important reasons for difference in number and order of stations and stages of mystical journey.
Key words: mysticism, practice, stations, stages, conditions, mystical journey.

The Idea of the Movement of the Ardent Desire: Doubts, Challenges and Their Responses

'Abdullatif 'Alemi / Graduate of level four of Seminary and assistant professor of Encyclopedia of Islamic rational sciences, IKI    Nashrieh@qabas.net
Received: 2013-10-7- Accepted: 2013-3-10
Abstract
The category of "movement" is one of the fundamental human thoughts which has always been discussed, analyzed and explained through philosophical, theological, mystical and scientific approaches. The most profound philosophical interpretation is presented in Mulla Sadra's ontological system, called "substantial movement". All these studies share the point that the nature, components and requirements of movement are specific to the state of nature. In the meantime, the advent of Ibn Arabi and commentators of his school in 7th century ('AH') caused a great development in this field and the theory of "Movement of the ardent desire" was explained in the form of descriptive and analytical propositions and on the basis of individual unity of existence, inspired by Quranic verses, hadiths and unveiling through knowledge by personal experience. It became clear that movement is absolutely "based on ardent desire", its starting point is divine areal region, its scope is all determinations and appearances, and its symbol and manifestation is movement in the state of nature. The acceptance of the idea of "movement of the ardent desire" with such an approach and scope is faced with some questions and doubts. These doubts are divided into three groups: some are related to the nature of movement; others are related to its starting point; and still others are related to its requirements and consequences.
Using an analytical-descriptive method, the present paper seeks to discuss and respond to these challenges, which leads to the fact that the scope and affirmative role of the doctrine of "movement of the ardent desire" play role in the manifestation of determinations, based on Ibn 'Arabi's interpretation with the very out-of-ardent-desire identity. On the contrary, the theory of philosophical movement will be called into doubt.
Key words: movement, out of ardent desire, perfection, essential, nominal, strength, act, perfecting

A Study of the Principles and Foundations of Mystical Esoteric Commentary from the View of Traditions

Seyyed Yadullah Yazdanpanah / Professor of Qom Seminary and head of department of mysticism, IKI    Nashrieh@Qabas.net
Received: 2013-11-13- Accepted: 2013-3-5
Abstract
People of knowledge use a particular method to interpret the magnificence of revelation, which, in scientific circles, is called with difference names such as mystical interpretation, intuitive interpretation and symbolic interpretation. Mystical or esoteric interpretation, along with exoteric interpretation, is a way to achieve the inner layers of revelation. Among the different theories on the meaning of esoteric interpretation of the Quran, the theories proposed by the people of knowledge are the most similar ones to the words of Holy Prophet's family. Mystical interpretation has different types including longitudinal and horizontal ones, each with different principles and foundations. Infallible Imams indirectly pointed to some of the methods, principles and foundations of esoteric interpretation of the Quran and used them to interpret and expound the inner meanings of Quranic magnificence. However, some researchers, due to their unfamiliarity with the principles and foundations of mystical interpretation, imagine that this type of interpretation contradicts with Infallible Imams' interpretive method and principles. The present paper seeks to eliminate this imagination through reviewing some traditions which deal with esoteric interpretation and comparing the principles and methods of mystical interpretation with infallible Imams' interpretive principles and methods.
Key words: esoteric interpretation, infallible Imams' hadiths, people of knowledge, principles and foundations, understanding religious texts, longitudinal esoteric interpretation, horizontal esoteric interpretation.