Mysticism in the Thoughts of Ibn-e- Tofeil
Ali Reza Kermani / assistant professor of IKI Kermania59@yahoo.com
Received: 2015/04/22 - Accepted: 2015/09/08
In Hayy ibn-e- Yaqdhan treatise, which is a description of the life of an imaginary man who was born and developed on an island near the equator, Ibn-e- Tofeil sheds light on the course of human development including the sensory stage the rational stage and then the stage of intuition. According to Ibn-e- Tofeil’s view, although intellect and intuition have the same outcome, intuitive knowledge is more obvious and distinct, and consequently, provides great pleasure. He holds that intuitive knowledge cannot be gained except through a mystical and spiritual journey, and Hayy ibn-e- Yaqdhan, which based on his own intellect and nature, acknowledges the necessity and manner of mystical journey. Accordingly, after passing through the mystical stages, the mystic reaches unity. Ibn-e- Tof eil however, notices this unity is not in contrast with multiplicity, because it is one of the characteristics of objects. In his intuition, the mystic faces a reality which is beyond description. Finally, Ibn-e- Tufail examines the relationship between these observable facts and Divine law.
Key words: Ibn-e- Tufail, mysticism, intuition, divine law, pantheism.
An Analysis of Nearness to God
from the Perspective of Islamic Mysticism
@ Jafar Sadeghi / MA in Islamic mystisisim, IKI email@example.com
Hossein Mozafari / assistant professor of IKI
Received: 2015/05/09 - Accepted: 2015/09/26
With regard to the systematic ontological views expressed in theoretical mysticism, it can be argued that, in Islamic mysticism, nearness to God means becoming and sublimity of human existence in the stages of the arc of ascent. This ultimate aim can be accomplished through the removal of constraints and spiritual disinterestedness in the determinations of Estidaei stages, so that all the veils of light and darkness in the path of proximity to God are removed. When the mystic carries out the commands of divine law, he can attain the appropriateness of temperament, create a balance between Divine Names in himself, and through his inmost consciousness, gradually get close to the realm of ultimate reality, which is manifested through all determinations. The effect which such a position has on the existence of a mystic is a kind of unity, absoluteness and spiritual synthesis which represents the shadow of the unity, absoluteness and spiritual synthesis of God, the Exalted.
Key words: nearness to God, authority, mystical journey, veil, degrees of sublimity, annihilation, existential becoming, Islamic mysticism.
An Ontological Explanation of Mystical Annihilation
in the View of Transcendental Philosophy
@ Seyyed Morteza Banirazi/ MA student of Islamic Mysticism, IKI firstname.lastname@example.org
Ali Reza Kermani/ Assistant professor of IKI
Received: 2015/04/20 - Accepted: 2015/09/06
Although the concept of ‘’mystical annihilation’’ and its derivations and requisites are among the concepts which characterize Islamic mysticism, it has affected the atmosphere of Islamic thought and soon entered philosophy so that Muslim philosophers investigated, criticized and analyzed it from an ontological perspective. This is why Mulla Sadra has dealt in his philosophical system with ‘’mystical annihilation’’, a subject for which “Peripatetic philosophy and Illuminationism”, two philosophical schools, had already attempted to provide ontological explanation. Meanwhile, Mulla Sadra claims that no one of the philosophers who proceeded him could solve the problem of mystical annihilation as it is viewed by mystics.
He thinks that solving this problem depends on a proper explanation of existential becoming. Existential becoming and transfiguration of essence have their roots in “unification of the sage into the intelligible” and “unification with the active intellect”. On the other hand, Mulla Sadra believes in the particular unity of existence, that is, he accepts the concept of being mystically annihilated in Allah, during inherent mystical annihilation. Hence, the way for the explanation of mystical annihilation is paved in his philosophical system.
Key words: mystical annihilation, existential becoming, transcendental philosophy, particular unity.
The Nature of Angels from the Viewpoint of Mysticism
@ Hossein Sadri/ MA Student of Islamic mysticism, IKI email@example.com
Davod Hassanzadeh Karimabad / PHD Student of Teaching Islamic Sciences,Baqir Al-Uloom University
Received: 2015/01/29 - Accepted: 2015/06/14
Muslim philosophers think that the grades of existence are intellects, idea and matter. Having a mission given to them by God, the angels are found in all the grades of existence and they appear like this at all time. Therefore, some of them are non-material and some have heavenly forms. These means of grace and divine workers who are referred to in all religious texts, in their different types and descriptions, perform their duties without any force and with full freedom. They are equipped with divine knowledge and have existential ranks which are in accord with their abilities and accomplishments. Therefore, they are awarded such medals like being ‘brought-near servants’’, ‘‘glorifiers’’, ‘’infallibles’’ and the like.
Key words: the nature of angles, kinds of angles, mysticism, Ibn Arabi.
The Mystic’s "Spiritual Resolve" and Its Role in Performing Miracles
Abolfazl Hashemi Sajzeii / PhD student in transcendental philosophy, IKI
Received: 2015/04/19 - Accepted: 2015/09/05
In Islamic mysticism, the question of various aspects of miracles has always been a source of interest to researchers. What attracts the attention of the researchers who investigate theoretical knowledge is explaining the way a mystic performs miracles. They present tenable analysis of the issue by resting on their own mystical principles, which include: the way of ordering the worlds of creation (the world of intellect, the world of forms, and the world of matter), the soul and its stages, and mystical journey. The central element in explaining this phenomenon is the mystical journey that gives the mystic’s soul a kind of strength with which he can control and influence the matter. Mystics call this stage "spiritual resolve". The process of concentrating attention and will through the strength of the great spirituality of soul is referred to as “spiritual resolve". When man moves in his mystical journey, from the stage of soul and reaches the stage of heart he will become part of the world of intellect and the world of forms as a result of his spirituality and this connection makes him join the forces of these worlds, gain his power or get at the truth. So in this way, he can control and influence the world or be informed about the Unseen.
Key words: miracle, spiritual resolve, strength of soul, spiritual journey, world of creation.
Kinds of Mysticism?
An Analysis of Social and Individual Teachings in Native American Mysticism (Coelho) and Hindi Mysticism (Osho)
Fezzeh Akbari / MA student of social research in Abu Ali Sina university of Hamadan
Esma'il Balali / faculty member of social sciences, Abu Ali Sina University of Hamadan
Ali Mohammad Ghodsi / faculty member of social sciences, Abu Ali Sina University of Hamadan
Kamal Kuhi / faculty member of social sciences and assistant professor, Tabriz University
Received: 2014/08/27 - Accepted: 2015/01/28
In the twenty-first century, most great religious traditions have faced the challenge of new religious movements and sects. In the meantime, the importance of the development of new the kinds of spirituality in Iran, whose political system is based on Islam, is undeniable. As far as meaning and content are concerned, these kinds of mysticism and their teachings do not conform with our social and Islamic values. This study is based on the views of such thinkers like Melton, Bainbridge, Wilson, Sheferz and Paul William, who believe in changing the standards of the new religious movements, and engage in abnormal and unusual religious behaviors .Carried out through content analysis, this research investigates the social and individual teachings of two examples of new mysticism, that is Hindi mysticism (Osho) and Native American mysticism (Paulo Coelho). The results show that teachings which are emphasized in these two kinds of mysticism include: hedonism, love, freedom, individuality, disregard of traditions, responsibility, dance and joy, creativity, courage and audacity, rejection of violence and meditation. Some of these teachings such as responsibility, creativity, nonviolence and so on are not inconsistent with the Iranian culture and Islam, but some others like hedonism, individuality, disregard of traditions and etc. are in stark contrast with the teachings of Islam and the Iranian culture .
Key words: new religious movement, Hindi mysticism of Osho, Native American mysticism of Coelho, social teaching, individual teaching.